By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be able to analyse and synthesise their understanding of health economics to a range of healthcare problems. The Clinical Scientist in HSST will be expected to apply their knowledge in the clinical setting spanning the concepts of Health Economics, outcome measurement, principles of measuring costs and the essential principles of cost effective analysis in decision making. They will also be able to seek and critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources and analyse their responses to normal or unusual circumstances, consistently demonstrating the professional attributes and insights required of a Consultant Clinical Scientist.
Knowledge and understanding
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be able to analyse, synthesise and apply in-depth knowledge of the principles of health economics within the healthcare environment, with regard to technologies and wider health interventions including:
- the definition of Health Economics and its application to Healthcare Technologies.
- how Health Economics enables the relative values of alternative therapies/intervention to be compared.
- the strengths and weaknesses of health economic evaluation.
- how Health Economics enables the demonstration of improvements in public health through rational decision making.
- concept of Quality Adjusted Life year measures.
- data sources including prospective, retrospective, patient registries.
- definition of Cost Effective Analysis, Cost Consequence Analysis, Cost Utility analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, Cost Minimisation.
- economic models (cross reference to modelling and simulation).
Technical and clinical skills
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of current relevant research, theory and knowledge and apply this to a case study and:
- construct a health economic evaluation.
- utilise cost concepts in economic evaluation – direct, indirect and intangible.
- identify appropriate data sources to utilise in evaluations.
- define the benefit in question.
- establish intermediate end-points and final outcomes.
- utilise common Patient Related Outcome measures – generic (SF-36, SIP, CHQ) versus specific eg Asthma Quality of life questionnaire, Gastro Reflux questionnaire.
- identify essential analysis elements – healthcare resource utilisation – costs – clinical effectiveness – health outcomes.
- utilise various data sources – prospective, retrospective, patient registries, other choice of perspective.
- interpret, compare and contrast Cost Effective Analysis, Cost Consequence Analysis, Cost Utility analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, Cost Minimisation.
- conduct a budget impact analysis.
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of current relevant research, theory and knowledge with respect to the application of the principles of health economics and will produce TWO case studies, taken from the following list of examples:
- medical technologies e.g. analysis in medical product development to support labelling claims.
- interventions e.g. construction and use of patient registries.
- a care pathway.
- interpretation of NICE guidelines from an economic perspective.
- economic impact of a single intervention.
- comparison of two alternative interventions.
- development of clinical practice guidelines.
- assessment of preventative interventions.
- review of re-imbursement policies.
The Clinical Scientist in HSST will also be expected to reflect on the challenges of applying research to practice and suggest improvements, building on a critique of available evidence.
Attitudes and behaviours
By the end of the module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be expected to evaluate their own response to both normal and complex situations demonstrating the professional attributes and insights required of a Consultant Clinical Scientist within the limits of professional competence referring as appropriate to senior staff and:
- ensure the patient perspective is clearly included in economic analysis.
- be proactive in identification of technological change required in the institution for patient benefit to keep healthcare at the limits of science.
- be mindful of the ethos and constitution of the NHS in ensuring best outcomes for patients.