Title Clinical Biochemistry - Analytical techniques and instrumentation
Type Stage One
Code HLS009
Requirement Compulsory

Module objective

By the end of the training period trainees will, in respect of analytical techniques and instrumentation, be able to:

  • analyse, synthesise, evaluate and apply knowledge
  • perform a range of technical and clinical skills and procedures
  • demonstrate the attitudes and behaviours necessary for professional practice as a consultant clinical scientist dealing with the complexities, uncertainties and tensions of professional practice at this level.

Knowledge and understanding

By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate the ability to analyse, evaluate and synthesise relevant knowledge and its application to their professional practice in relation to:

  • methods of standardisation and calibration
  • how to identify common method interferences
  • use of pipettes
  • describe:
    • how to prepare and store reagents
    • use and maintenance of centrifuges
  • assay interference:
    • mechanisms by which common interferents affect laboratory assays (haemolysis, jaundice, lipaemia)
  • heterophilic antibodies
  • the principles of automated instrumentation, including random access, immunoassay analysers robotics and modular systems
  • the principles and practical aspects of spectrometric methods including
    • spectrometry: visible, UV, reflectance, bichromatic, derivative, linear diode array, infra-red
    • turbidimetry, nephelometry, densitometry, fluorimetry
    • nuclear magnetic resonance
    • mass spectrometry
    • flame emission spectrometry
    • atomic absorption: flame, furnace, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS)
  • the principles of osmometry
  • the principles of ion selective electrodes Na+, K+, Cl, H+, pO2 , pCO2 , Ca2+, NH4+, Mg2+, Li+
  • the principles of enzymology including fixed interval and kinetic assays, isoenzymes, and the use of enzymes as reagents
  • the principles of radioisotope counting including gamma- and beta-counting
  • how immunochemical techniques including immuno-assay, -metric assays, -electrophoresis, -fixation and -diffusion work
  • the advantages of different labels in immunological techniques
  • the principles and methods of electrophoresis
  • methods for different chromatography techniques, including separation and detection methods
  • the technical principles of point-of-care analysers
  • the uses of solid/dry phase chemistry
  • DNA/RNA/chromosomal analyses including PCR and Southern blotting.

Technical and clinical skills

By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of current relevant research, theory and knowledge and its application to the performance of the following technical procedures and laboratory skills:

  • the use of common laboratory techniques
  • the performance and limitations of a method or technique commonly used in clinical biochemistry
  • how to detect errors and sources of error
  • analytical skills necessary in a laboratory
  • an experiment to investigate possible assay interference
  • the technology and design of biochemistry analysers and their limitations and benefits
  • the application of some spectrometric methods
  • how to use osmometry
  • write a report on a QA scheme
  • how to interpret mutation analysis and its application to diagnoses and family studies.

Attitudes and behaviours

This module has no attitude and behaviours information.


Code Title Action
HLS1-1-20 Clinical Biochemistry [v1] View