|Title||Basic and theoretical skills 1|
By the end of the training period trainees will, in respect of a broad and detailed knowledge of the immune system, its normal function and conditions associated with its abnormal activity or function, be able to:
- analyse, synthesise, evaluate and apply knowledge
- perform a range of technical and clinical skills and procedures
- demonstrate the attitudes and behaviours necessary for professional practice as a consultant clinical scientist dealing with the complexities, uncertainties and tensions of professional practice at this level.
Knowledge and understanding
By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate the ability to analyse, evaluate and synthesise relevant knowledge and its application to their professional practice in relation to:
- appropriate laboratory investigations
- therapeutic interventions:
- putative mechanisms of action of various immunological therapies
- the principles of the various therapeutic options to guide the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient
- the immune system in its entirety (to a level associated with the shorter immunology texts, e.g. Parnham, Geah, Nairn and Helbert, Misbah, Chapel and Haeney, Peakman and Vergani, Janeway)
- the immunological features of diseases and their abnormal findings in the laboratory
- the basic physiology and clinical immunology of the disease processes under investigation in the laboratory
- the nature of immunological investigations undertaken and provided to other specialties:
- physiology, immunology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, natural history, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, causes, classification, complications, molecular biology, diagnostic methods required in the curriculum should be acquired throughout training
- reference values and population statistics:
- common reference intervals
- inter- and intra-individual variation
- assessment and application of biological variance data in setting analytical goals
- assessing utility of reference values
- significance of changes in serial results
- the effect of genetic and environmental influences such as age, sex, nutrition, time of day, stress, posture, hospitalisation and therapeutic agents on immunological results.
Technical and clinical skills
By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of current relevant research, theory and knowledge and its application to the performance of the following technical procedures and laboratory skills:
- immunological and other pathological diagnostic processes AND a broad understanding of general diagnostic procedures in relation to the investigations, diagnosis and screening
- able to write 500-word essays on a broad range of immunology topics to standard required for FRCPath Part 1
- able to critically assess and evaluate new knowledge, commensurate with reviews in current scientific journals (see EAACI reading list)**
- the pharmacology of the therapeutic agents used in patient management
- molecular biology to identify genetic disorders
- a sound knowledge of the principles of laboratory testing in diagnostic immunology
- able to use electronic resources to search for scientific literature and be to critically review and present original findings from a scientific paper (to level of a journal club)
- a good understanding of principles and practices (under direct supervision) of immunology
- the principles and application of particular tests, interpretation of the results, any action that may be required for unusual results and basic QC and QA for the curriculum topics listed above.
- the limitations of laboratory tests
- the advantages and disadvantages of laboratory automation for immunological investigation
- reference values and population statistics including common reference intervals, inter- and intra- individual variation, assessment and application of biological variance data in setting analytical goals and in assessing utility of reference values
- basic statistics including: standard deviation, standard error of the mean, confidence intervals, co- efficient variation and receiver operator curves (ROC).
By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to apply knowledge of the immune system, its normal function and conditions associated with its abnormal activity or function to perform the clinical skills necessary to manage under supervision:
- for the ‘clinical’ curriculum topics, knowledge of the immunology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology natural history, epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, causes, classification, complications, molecular biology and diagnostic methods. this knowledge will be acquired throughout training
- the ability to recognise and appropriately response major abnormalities within a patient’s results
- advising on the appropriate use and interpretation of the results of the laboratory investigations in screening for disease, to establish (differential) diagnosis, to monitor progress and treatment
- liaise and communicate clearly with colleagues and other clinical teams in primary and secondary care both verbally and in writing.
Understanding the principles and important findings of:
- history taking
- physical examination.
Ability to use the information generated in history taking and physical examination to:
- select appropriate ancillary investigations
- formulate differential diagnoses.
To use knowledge of therapeutic options and understanding of the principles of their actions to aid clinical decision making.
Familiarity with national guidance on appropriate test selection and use where relevant, e.g. NICE.
Attitudes and behaviours
This module has no attitude and behaviours information.