Title Analytical Toxicology - Analytical techniques and instrumentation
Type Stage Two
Code HLS100
Requirement Compulsory

Module objective

By the end of the training period trainees will, in respect of becoming a competent analyst in a range of analytical techniques, their performance, comparative usefulness and applications so as to be competent in the management of the analytical toxicology laboratory, be able to:

  • analyse, synthesise, evaluate and apply knowledge
  • perform, adapt and master a range of technical and clinical skills and procedures
  • demonstrate the attitudes and behaviours necessary for professional practice as a consultant clinical scientist dealing with the complexities, uncertainties and tensions of professional practice at this level.

Knowledge and understanding

By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate the ability to analyse, evaluate and synthesise relevant knowledge and its application to their professional practice in relation to:

  • Basic laboratory techniques and centrifugation:
    • methods of standardisation and calibration
    • use of pipettes
    • preparation and storage of reagents
    • use and maintenance of centrifuges.
  •  Assay interference:
    • understands the mechanisms by which common interferents affect laboratory assays (haemolysis, plasticicers, putrefaction products, jaundice, lipaemia)
    • heterophilic antibodies
    • identification of common method interferences 
  • Automated instrumentation: 
    • random access, immunoassay analysers robotics and modular systems
  • Spectrometric methods
    • spectrophotometry: visible, ultra-violet (UV), fluorescence, atomic absorption
    • turbidimetry
  •  Osmometry
  • Electrometric methods:
    • ion selective electrodes Na+, K+, Cl, F, H+, pO2 , pCO2 , Ca2+, Li+
  • Enzymology:
    • fixed interval, kinetic assays, isoenzymes, enzymes as reagents
  • Immunochemical Techniques:
    • immunoassay
    • labels: enzyme, fluorescent, chemiluminescent
  • Electrophoresis, including capillary electrophoresis
  • Chromatography, Including thin layer, gas-liquid, and high-performance liquid
  • Mass spectrometry, including GC-MS, LC-MS, and ICP-MS
    • ionization (EI, CI, ESI, APCI, DESI, MALDI)
    • detection (SIM, MS/MS, ion-trap quadrupole/orbitrap, time of flight, accurate mass, ion mobility)
  • Point-of-care testing
    • advantages/disadvantages of point-of-care testing
    • glucose, bilirubinometers, blood gas, ion-selective electrodes, urinanalysis, alcohol, drugs of abuse
  • Solid/dry phase chemistry
    • dipstick, thin film.

Technical and clinical skills

By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to demonstrate a critical understanding of current relevant research, theory and knowledge and its application to the performance, adaptation and mastery of the following technical procedures and laboratory skills:

  • experience of techniques, and conversant with the performance and limitations of widely used methods in analytical toxicology.
  • to detect errors and sources of error.
  • taking responsibility for assays.
  • ensuring analytical competence.
  • practical experience of investigating assay interference.
  • understand the technology and design of biochemistry analysers and appreciate their limitations and benefits.
  • experience of the application of all of these methods as regards analytical toxicology.
  • experience of the use of point-of-care testing in hospital.

By the end of the training period the trainee will be able to apply knowledge of analytical techniques and instrumentation to perform, adapt and master the clinical skills necessary to manage to:

  • liaise with clinical colleagues especially with respect to point-of-care testing and interpretation of results.

Attitudes and behaviours

This module has no attitude and behaviours information.


Code Title Action
HLS1-5-20 Analytical Toxicology [v1] View
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