Title Epidemiology, Visual Impairment and Screening
Type Stage One
Code HPS228
Requirement Compulsory

Module objective

By the end of this module in Epidemiology, Visual Impairment and Screening the Clinical Scientist in HSST will have an expert knowledge of: (i) the ‘three-part’ question (population, risk factor, or intervention and outcomes) to clinical scenarios to assess types and sources of evidence required; (ii) the different research designs to address different clinical questions; (iii) the understanding and application of epidemiological reasoning, e.g. role of sources of errors (i.e. chance, bias and confounding), and how to assess causality; and (iv) how to appraise evidence, i.e searching the literature, critiquing papers, synthesising findings.

Knowledge and understanding

By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will analyse, synthesise, critically evaluate and apply their expert knowledge required with respect to the:

  • ascertainment of current causes of visual impairment, their incidence and prevalence in the UK and worldwide;
  • estimate of those areas of ophthalmic concern that will grow with time, e.g. as technological advances improve survival of premature low birth weight infants, and the effect of external influences, e.g. poverty, on susceptibility and access to resources;
  • the fulfilment criteria before a screening protocol is strategically implemented;
  • how to assess the effectiveness of current screening protocols and reappraise if new tests and/or interventions are to be introduced;
  • how to design the appropriate study to assess the impact of a new intervention or test;
  • the nature of ophthalmic epidemiology and its modifiers;
  • how to calculate the cost-benefit of screening resources in years of living with visual impairment.

Technical and clinical skills

By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be able to access and critically appraise evidence, and apply statistical methods to validate and appraise data impacting on screening procedures and frequencies across the OVS spectrum of clinical care.

By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be expected to critically reflect and apply in practice a range of clinical knowledge and communication skills to advise and communicate effectively with patients, relevant clinicians, carers, the public and other healthcare professionals and will be able to:

  • advise patients, carers and fellow health professionals about the most appropriate screening test for an ophthalmic or visual pathway disease or condition;
  • advise public health bodies about the areas of highest screening demand and need and resource in OVS;
  • adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the appraisal of evidence and development, introduction and implementation of a screening programme in clinical practice in all levels of healthcare.

Attitudes and behaviours

This module has no attitude and behaviours information.


Code Title Action
HPS2-2-1-20 Ophthalmic & Vision Sciences (Electrophysiology) [v1] View
HPS2-2-2-20 Ophthalmic & Vision Sciences (Imaging) [v1] View
HPS2-2-3-20 Ophthalmic & Vision Sciences (Visual Perception and Psychophysics) [v1] View