|Title||Therapeutics in Disorders of the Visual System|
Clinical Scientists in OVS are not currently permitted to issue prescriptions as either supplementary or independent prescribers. However, there are circumstances known as patient-specific directions whereby medicines can be given by another professional following the directions of an approved prescriber. Provider organisations should have arrangements in place that enable these legal requirements to be implemented. This therapeutics module is included in this HSST curriculum to provide the underpinning knowledge and understanding of a range of therapeutics utilised within OVS to support the Clinical Scientist in HSST to work with other clinicians and healthcare professionals as part of a multidisciplinary team.
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST, in respect to OVS, will be able to analyse, synthesise, evaluate and apply knowledge of appropriate ophthalmic-specific therapeutic interventions relevant to clinical practice, including non-medication-based therapeutic and preventative interventions (e.g. patching therapy for amblyopia) within the scope of practice of Consultant Clinical Scientist in OVS.
Knowledge and understanding
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will analyse, synthesise, critically evaluate and apply their knowledge with respect to the:
- cell biology, physiology, biochemistry and genetics of the eye;
- indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions and dosages of commonly used ophthalmic drugs, e.g. mydriatics, topical anaesthetic agents, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, prostaglandins and anti-angiogenic medication;
- range of adverse reactions to commonly used drugs, including complementary materials such as intravenously administered dyes;
- effects and presentation of toxicity associated with therapeutic drugs, e.g. hydroxychloroquine, quinine, thioridizine, ethambutol;
- the role of electrophysiology, imaging and psychophysical tests in the monitoring of therapeutic interventions;
- drugs requiring therapeutic monitoring and the ability to interpret longitudinal data from electrophysiological, imaging and psychophysical tests, and to assist the clinician in planning future therapeutic intervention;
- tools used to promote patient safety in prescribing, including electronic clinical record systems and other IT systems;
- effects of age, body size, organ dysfunction and concurrent illness on drug distribution and metabolism relevant to the scope of practice of a Consultant Clinical Scientist;
- safety and efficacy of treatment strategies in relation to the design of clinical trials, including ethical/regulatory approval from relevant bodies such as the UK Gene Therapy Advisory Committee, MHRA, on-site research governance committee and local ethics committee, compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP), EU Directive 2001 and Declaration of Helsinki;
- roles of regulatory agencies involved in drug use, monitoring and licensing (e.g. Royal College of Ophthalmologists Clinical Guidelines, Gene Technology Advisory Committee (GTAC), NICE, Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM), MHRA and hospital formulary committees);drugs requiring therapeutic monitoring and the ability to interpret longitudinal data from electrophysiological, imaging and psychophysical tests, and to assist the clinician in planning future therapeutic intervention;
- principles of compliance in ensuring that drug regimens are followed.
Technical and clinical skills
By the end of this module the Clinical Scientist in HSST will be expected to reflect critically on their practice and knowledge of medications used in OVS. They will be expected to apply in practice a range of clinical and communication skills to advise and communicate effectively with relevant clinicians and other healthcare professionals and will, within the multidisciplinary team:
- review the continuing need for, effect of including adverse drug interactions and adverse effects of long-term medications relevant to and within the scope of practice of a Consultant Clinical Scientist in HSST in OVS;
- recognise and anticipate avoidable defined drug interactions, including with complementary medicines;
- employ validated methods to improve patient compliance with prescribed medication, including frequency of testing to monitor treatment outcome;
- utilise non-medication-based therapeutic interventions and preventative health interventions within the scope of a Consultant Clinical Scientist in HSST;
- recognise the benefit of minimising number of medications and interventions taken by a patient to a level compatible with best care;
- remain open to advice from other health professionals on medication issues;
- participate in adverse drug event reporting processes;provide comprehensible explanations for the use of drugs to the patient and to carers when relevant and within the scope of Clinical Scientist practice in HSST;
- remain up to date with therapeutic alerts and respond appropriately.
Attitudes and behaviours
This module has no attitude and behaviours information.